Likutey Halakhos, Yoreh Deah 1, Kley HaYayin 1 – Para. 2. Speaker: Rabbi Nasan Maimon. Two Aspects of Wine; Length of Days; Kiddush on Shabbos and Yom Tov; Kos Shel Bracha; Eretz Yisrael; Erev Rosh Chodesh Elul.
Hilkhos Kley HaYayin 1 is based on 2Likutey Moharan 4. וּבְיוֹם הַבִּכּוּרִים, בְּהַקְרִיבְכֶם מִנְחָה חֲדָשָׁה לַייָ בְּשָׁבֻעֹתֵיכֶם, מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כָּל מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ – “On the day of the first fruits, when you offer up a new meal offering to the Lord, on your festival of Weeks; it shall be a holy convocation for you, and you shall not perform any mundane work“ (Bamidbar 28:26).
00:00 – PARAGRAPH 2. Wine has both positive and negative aspects. When a person has complete אמונה – faith in Hashem – then his יראה – fear of Hashem – generates שמחה – joy.
02:20 – יִרְאַ֣ת יְ֖הוָה תּוֹסִ֣יף יָמִ֑ים – “Fear of Hashem adds length to life” (Mishlei 10:27). אריכות ימים – “Length of Days” – is the capacity for generating more holiness.
04:00 – רצון – will – generates יראה – respect for Hashem. Miracles reveal that nature is controlled by Hashem. When people witness these miracles, their respect for Hashem increases.
05:16 – The reverse is also true: the more a person respects Hashem, the more Hashem reveals Himself to that person through miracles. וַיִּירָ֧א יַֽעֲקֹ֛ב מְאֹ֖ד וַיֵּ֣צֶר ל֑וֹ – “…Yaakov became very afraid [of Hashem] and was distressed” (Bereishis 32:8).
07:55 – יראה results in שמחה – joy.
*08:40 – Suffering brings a person fear of Hashem’s punishment, which eventually helps that person to achieve true joy in life.
*12:35 – Even if a person doesn’t fully perfect יראה after going through difficulty or suffering, he receives great benefit from simply maintaining faith in Hashem.
13:53 – The Zohar HaKadosh explains how שמחה is encoded in the Shema. When a person has אמונה and יראה, he can experience true שמחה – joy.
14:57 – When a non-Jew touches wine or its container, that wine becomes contaminated by the false beliefs of the 70 nations. Even if the non-Jew doesn’t actually worship idols, his thoughts are still rooted in denial of Hashem and transfer spiritual impurity to the wine.
18:05 – Drunkenness is also the result of going through suffering without אמונה. Pain can cause a person to lose his mind. Someone who lacks faith becomes confused and is plagued by unhealthy fears. Living in denial of Hashem is a form of being drunk, as in וּשְׁכֻרַ֖ת וְלֹ֥א מִיָּֽיִן – “…drunk but not from wine” (Yeshayahu 51:21).
21:53 – Q&R about drunkenness caused by suffering.
22:27 – PARAGRAPH 3. Why Yosef HaTzaddik sent to Yaakov Avinu יין ישן שדעת זקנים – “wine that’s aged as the wisdom of elders”. The concept of Zikeinim D’Kedusha – people who, like fine wine, improve as they age (Megillah 16b).
24:20 – PARAGRAPH 4. On Shabbos and Yom Tov, the revelations of Hashem’s רצון make it possible to receive the positive aspects of wine.
*27:29 – PARAGRAPH 5. The vessels used for containing kosher wine need to be supervised.The Torah doesn’t speak of “wine of blessing” but rather “cup of blessing” – meaning that there’s blessing in wine only when it’s contained by a proper vessel. כוס – cup – is b’gematria 86 – Elokim. It is also b’gematria HaTeva – nature. This illustrates the two opposing aspects of wine: faith in Hashem vs faith in nature.
30:15 – Nature serves to “hide” Hashem, allowing man free will. When Hashem wants to demonstrate that He controls nature, He performs miracles such as the ones we celebrate on the holidays.
32:42 – NOTE: Whenever Erev Rosh Chodesh comes out on Erev Shabbos, the tefilos of Yom Kippur Katan are said on Thursday rather than on Friday.
33:22 – What perfects any vessel is אמונה. The holiness of Shabbos and Yom Tov is drawn to a person through reciting Kiddush on a cup of wine. Introduction to the concept of Kos Shel Bracha.
35:38 – PARAGRAPH 6. Kos Shel Bracha – Kos Shel Birkhas HaMazon – the cup of wine held during the blessings said after a meal with bread. וְאָֽכַלְתָּ֖ וְשָׂבָ֑עְתָּ וּבֵֽרַכְתָּ֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ עַל־הָאָ֥רֶץ הַטֹּבָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָֽתַן־לָֽךְ – “And you will eat and be satisfied, and you shall bless Hashem for the good Land He has given you” (Devarim 8:10, Ekev). Reference to Likutey Moharan 7: Eretz Yisrael is the Land of Miracles.
39:00 – All ten levels of holiness in the entire world are found in Eretz Yisrael. What is kedushah – holiness? Belief in the רצון of Hashem.
40:31 – כִּֽי־רָצ֣וּ עֲ֖בָדֶיךָ אֶת־אֲבָנֶ֑יהָ וְאֶת־עֲפָרָ֥הּ יְחֹנֵֽנוּ – “For Your servants desired its stones and cherished its dust” (Tehillim 102:15). Ehven Shesiya – Foundation Stone – represents the highest level of Hashem’s רצון.
42:27 – It is a Torah obligation for men to visit the Beis HaMikdash three times a year on each of the three major holidays. שָׁל֣וֹשׁ פְּעָמִ֣ים | בַּשָּׁנָ֡ה יֵֽרָאֶה֩ כָל־זְכ֨וּרְךָ֜ אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ – “Three times in the year each of your males shall appear before Hashem, Your Master” (Devarim 16:16, ReEh). The רצון of Hashem is revealed on these occasions through “seeing” the “Face of Hashem” (so to speak) and to be “seen” by Hashem.
43:52 – Q&R about drinking wine. The stronger a person’s spiritual level, the greater his ability to have mastery over wine’s positive aspects. Guidelines for drinking on Purim.
*46:48 – NOTE about Erev Rosh Chodesh Elul: Even those who don’t usually say the Tefilos of Yom Kippur Katan during the rest of the year usually do say them in honor of Rosh Chodesh Elul.
47:04 – Closing blessing.